What Is This Module About?
When you take a walk in the park, or stroll along a busy street or a lonely road,
have you ever noticed the kinds of plants that seem to grow almost anywhere?
Because there are many different kinds of plants, it is helpful to know how to
classify them. To classify means to arrange according to class or category. This is
usually done based on characteristics shared by certain plants. Classifying helps us put
into order the many varieties of plants that exist. It also enables us to identify which
group of plants can be used for a certain purpose because of their similar
characteristics.
In this module, you will learn how to classify plants according to certain
characteristics. You will learn where they live, the kind of stem they have and whether
or not they have flowers and bear seeds. You’ll also learn the many ways in which
plants reproduce.
Before you study this module, you should have read two other modules entitled
What Would Life Be Without Plants? and Think Green.
This module is divided into three lessons:
Lesson 1 – Simple Classification of Plants
Lesson 2 – Major Classifications in the Plant Kingdom
Lesson 3 – Classification Based on Means of Reproduction
What Will You Learn From This Module?
After studying this module, you should be able to:
. describe the purpose of classifying plants;
. classify plants according to their habitat and stem type;
. classify plants based on whether they have flowers and seeds or not; and
. classify plants according to their means of reproduction.
1
Let’s See What You Already Know
Before studying this module, answer the questions below to determine how much
you already know about the topic.
Write the letter that corresponds to the correct answer in the blank before each
number.
1. Which of the following is not a reason for classifying plants?
a. to give order to the many plant varieties
b. to easily distinguish groups of plants based on certain
characteristics
c. to categorize plants into smaller groups so as to easily
identify them
d. to find the relationship between plants and animals

2. Which of the following plants are aquatic?
a. watermelon, mango and sampaloc
b. orchids and green ivy
c. lotus, water lily and kangkong
d. string beans and cabbage
3. Plants that have soft, greenish stems are called .
a. terrestrial
b. herbaceous
c. aquatic
d. aerial
4. They are plants that grow upright, but stay close to the ground and
do not grow tall.
a. shrubs
b. vines
c. trees
d. flowers

5. Which of the following is not a characteristic of flowering plants?
a. They bear seeds.
b. They have true roots, stems and leaves.
c. They are simple plants that live in water.
d. The flower is their reproductive structure.
6. What do you call the asexual reproduction in plants?
a. vegetation
b. vegetation propagation
c. fertilization
d. pollination
2

7. What do sweet potatoes use to reproduce?
a. tubers
b. leaves
c. rhizomes
d. roots
8. Which part of the plant produces pollen?
a. anther
b. sepal
c. pistil
d. petal

9. What is the term for the union of a sperm cell and an egg cell?
a. vegetative propagation
b. pollination
c. vegetation
d. fertilization
10. What is the process through which the pollen is transferred from
the anther to the stigma of a flower?
a. pollination
b. vegetative propagation
c. fertilization
d. asexual reproduction
Well, how was it? Do you think you fared well? Compare your answers with those
in the Answer Key on pages 42–43 to find out.
If all your answers are correct, very good! This shows that you already know
much about the topic. You may still study the module to review what you already
know. Who knows, you might learn a few more new things as well.
If you got a low score, don’t feel bad. This means that this module is for you. It
will help you understand important concepts that you can apply in your daily life. If
you study this module carefully, you will learn the answers to all the items in the test
and a lot more! Are you ready?
You may now go to the next page to begin Lesson 1.
3
LESSON 1
page.
Simple Classification of Plants
If you look closely, you’ll find that plants differ in many ways. Yet, some plants
also share similar characteristics. Such similarities are used to group plants or
classify them. Classifying plants is much like the way we separate clothes that need to
be washed – there is always a heap of “whites” and another heap of “coloreds.” Of
course, since there are so many plants, there are many ways in which we can classify
them.
Classifying plants helps to give order to the many plant varieties. It also helps to
easily distinguish groups of plants based on certain characteristics and to categorize
plants into smaller groups so as to easily identify them.
Plants can be classified according to where they live or what their stem type is.
They can also be classified according to how they grow, that is, do they grow tall or
stay close to the ground? Do they crawl or creep?
Knowing where plants live makes it easier for us to find certain plants, especially
when we need them. The kind of stem they have and how they grow helps us determine
which plants can serve a specific purpose. For example, plants with soft stems may be
eaten, while those with hard stems may have other uses. Tall trees with hard trunks are
good sources of building materials.
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:
. describe the purpose of classifying plants;
. classify plants based on where they live;
. classify plants according to their stem type; and
. classify plants based on their size and direction of growth.
Let’s Try This
Take a close look around your local neighborhood. What plants do you see? Can
you name and describe them? Write down your observations in the table on the next
4
Name of Plant
1.
2.
3.
4.
Discuss your answers with your Instructional Manager and your co-learners.
Let’s Study and Analyze
Study the following plants.
orchid
poison ivy
carrot
5
Observations
lotus
seaweed
mango
rose
green ivy
kangkong
acacia
Have you observed any of these plants in your community? Where does each
plant live? Place each plant in the appropriate box below.
Plants that live
on land
1.
2.
3.




4.
5.
6.




water lily
narra
banana
water hyacinth
6
4.
5.
Plants that live
in water




1.
2.
3.
3. 1.
2.
Plants that are
attached to
other plants
atis
water hyacinth
Let’s Talk About This
As we have discussed, a plant’s habitat can be land, water or air. Plants have
special names based on their habitat.
Plants that live on land, like bamboo and atis, are terrestrial.
bamboo
Plants that live in water, such as lotus and water hyacinth, are aquatic.
lotus



You have just classified the plants according to where they live. Another word
used to identify where organisms or living things, such as plants, live is habitat. It
means “home” or “environment”.
Compare your answers with those in the Answer Key on page 43.
Were you able to group the plants properly? If yes, very good! Now, let’s learn
more about classifying plants according to their habitat.
7




Plants that live in air, such as orchids, are aerial. Aerial plants live above the
ground, often clinging or attached to other plants.
green ivy orchid
Aside from the examples given, can you name other terrestrial, aquatic and aerial
plants? List them below.
Aerial Terrestrial Aquatic
1.
_ 1. _ 1. _
2. _ 2. _ 2. _
3. _ 3. _ 3. _
4. _ 4. _ 4. _
5. _ 5. _ 5. _
You may compare your list of plants with the additional examples found on page
43 of the Answer Key. Your list may be slightly different. You may also discuss your
list with your co-learners and Instructional Manager.
PLANTS
Aerial
(live in air)
Letfs Remember
. Classifying plants means to group them into categories based on certain
similar characteristics.
. Plants can be classified according to their habitat or where they live. Refer
to the diagram below:
Terrestrial
(live on land)
Aquatic
(live in water)
. Classifying plants according to habitat makes it easy for us to know where
we can find these plants and in which places they can be grown.
There are other ways of classifying plants. In the next section, you will learn how
to classify plants based on the type of stems that they have.
8
stem
ampalaya banana
kangkong santan pechay
Let’s Study and Analyze
Apart from classifying plants by their habitats, we can also classify plants
according to the type of their stems.
A stem is the part of a plant that transports water and minerals up from the roots
and food down from the leaves. It also exposes the leaves of a plant to light. You have
already learned in the previous modules that plants need plenty of sunlight to make
food and to survive.
flower
leaf
next page.
root system
Examine closely the stems of the following plants. If possible, try to find
samples of actual plants and examine their stems.
gumamela
What did you observe in the plants? What are the colors of their stems? Are they
hard or soft? Are they rough or smooth? Write your observations in the table on the
9
Plant Color of Stem Hardness of Stem
(Hard or soft?)
1. rose
2. gumamela
3. santan
4. kangkong
5. pechay
Texture of Stem
(Rough or smooth?)
Compare your answers with those in the Answer Key on page 44.
dama de noche
kinchay
Let’s Learn
When we classify plants according to the characteristics of their stems, we often
come up with two groups.
Woody plants are those with stems that are hard
and usually brown. Big trees, like acacia and molave,
are woody. The wood from these trees are often used
to build houses. Other woody plants include ipil-ipil
and dama de noche.
Which of the five plants in the previous activity are woody?
_
Non-woody plants have stems that are soft,
smooth and usually green. These plants are
sometimes called herbaceous. Green, leafy
vegetables, like alugbati, kinchay and saluyot, are
non-woody.
Which among the five plants in the previous activity are non-woody?
_
Among the plants in the previous activity, the woody plants are rose, gumamela
and santan. The non-woody plants are kangkong and pechay.
Woody plants can be divided into three groups: trees, shrubs and vines. Refer to
the diagram below to help you understand this better.
PLANTS
Woody Non-woody or
herbaceous
Shrubs Trees Vines
10
Vines are climbing or creeping woody plants. ampalaya vine
Notice how an ampalaya plant supports itself. Vines
have stems called twiners that entwine themselves or
coil around solid support. Also, they have climbing
organs called tendrils. Other examples of vines are
grapes, poison ivy and morning glory.
Can you give other examples of vines?
_
Shrubs have stems that grow upright. However, rose shrub
they do not grow very tall. Examples of shrubs are
sampaguita and rose. Notice the thorns on rose
stems. Some shrubs have thorns to protect them.
They need protection from hostile animals because
they grow low or near the ground. This is to prevent
animals from eating or destroying them.
Can you give other examples of shrubs?
_
Trees are woody plants that often grow big. They narra
often have one very hard and wide stem, called the
trunk. You can find many trees in the forests and
mountains. Some trees grow along roadsides. Our
national tree, the narra, is one of the tallest trees in
the country.
Can you name other trees?
_
Turn to page 44 of the Answer Key to see other examples of vines, shrubs and
trees. You may have listed other examples of woody plants. You may like to discuss
your answers with your co-learners or your Instructional Manager.
Classifying plants according to the type of stem they possess helps determine the
particular purpose of any particular group of plants.
Most of the non-woody or herbaceous plants may be eaten. Examples of these
are found in many Filipino dishes. There’s the kangkong in sinigang na baka, the
alugabati in ginisang mongo, the malunggay in tinola, and the talbos ng kamote in
sinigang na isda.
Woody plants like trees are mostly sources of building materials. The narra,
kamagong and mahogany make very sturdy pieces of furniture. Some people still like
to build houses using these trees. Woody plants also make good shade during hot
summer months.
In Lessons 2 and 3, we will look at other ways of classifying plants, based on
whether they have flowers and seeds and how they reproduce.
11
banana
saluyot
grapes
Non-woody
Let’s See What You Have Learned
To see how much you have learned about classifying plants according to habitat
and type of stem, complete the following lesson review test.
A. Classify the following plants according to their habitat. Write T in the blank
6. kangkong
7. green ivy
8. squash
9. lotus
10. corn
if the plant is terrestrial, Aq if it is aquatic, and Ae if it is aerial.
1. langka
2. seaweed
3. chico
4. orchid
5. lanzones
B. Classify the plants below according to their stem type. Write the woody
plants in the first box, and the non-woody plants in the second box.
dama de noche
alugbati
ilang-ilang
sampaguita
molave kinchay
Woody




1.
2.
3.
4.





1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
C. Write whether each plant is a shrub, a tree, or a vine.

4. durian 1. rose
5. mango 2. apple
6. santan 3. upo
D. Complete the missing words in the following plant classification chart.
Woody
PLANTS
Compare your answers with those in the Answer Key on pages 44–45.
Well, how was it? Did you get all the correct answers? If so, very good! If not,
review the parts of this lesson that aren’t very clear to you.
12
Let's Remember
. Classifying plants is grouping them under specific categories based on
certain similar characteristics.
. Plants can be classified according to their habitat or where they live.
. Terrestrial plants live on land.
. Aquatic plants are found in bodies of water.
. Aerial plants live in air or on the branches of the trees.
. Classifying plants according to their habitat helps us identify what plants can
be found in certain areas and where certain plants should be grown.
. Plants can be classified according to the type of stem they have.
. Woody plants have hard, rough and usually brown stems.
. Non-woody or herbaceous plants have soft, usually smooth and
greenish stems.
. Woody plants are of three kinds.
. Vines are the crawling or creeping plants.
. Shrubs grow very low or close to the ground.
. Trees are usually tall and have one large stem called the trunk.
. Classifying plants according to the type of stems they have helps to identify
the uses of certain groups of plants.
13
Major Classifications in the Plant Kingdom
In the previous lesson, we discussed classifying plants according to their habitat
and stem types. Those are very simple means of classification and are the most
convenient to use.
But did you know that whether a plant has flowers and seeds or not is an
important characteristic used in classifying plants? Knowing whether a plant has
flowers and seeds or not helps farmers know how they should grow certain plants.
Also, plants that have flowers are usually more attractive and make better decorating
materials. You will know more about the use of classifying plants according to
whether they have flowers and seeds or not as you go through the lesson.
At the end of the lesson, you should be able to:
. identify the characteristics of non-flowering and flowering plants; and
. classify plants into non-flowering and flowering.
Letfs Try This
Look at the pictures of the following plants. If possible, try to find actual samples
of these plants in your local neighborhood. Examine closely whether the plants have
flowers or not.
seaweed
bougainvillea
rose bush
fern
14
LESSON 2
pine tree
moss
What do you notice about the plants? Can you tell which the flowering plants are?
Which are the non-flowering plants? Write your answers in the appropriate column
below.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Compare your answers with those in the Answer Key on page 46.
The plant kingdom is divided into two main groups: the non-flowering plants
(such as algae and moss) and the flowering plants (such as trees and shrubs).
Let’s Learn
Most non-flowering plants live in water or in moist places. Most of them do not
have systems that transport food and water in and around their bodies.
Non-flowering plants do not have flowers or seeds. Examples of non-flowering
plants include seaweed, algae, mushrooms, mosses and ferns.
Non-flowering Plants
15
Flowering Plants





mushroom
mango tree
Non-flowering Plants

1.
2.
3.
4.
Some non-flowering plants, such as seaweed and algae, have no roots, stems or
leaves. Seaweed lives in saltwater and may be found washed up on beaches. Algae are
found in water and in moist places. Have you noticed the green growth on damp walls,
and on some ponds and pools? These are types of algae.
green algae seaweed
Fungi (singular form: fungus) such as mushrooms are also examples of nonflowering
plants. They cannot make their own food. They live by feeding on dead
materials or on another living organism. What do you call the mushroom you often
find in vegetable dishes?
ferns
red moss
mushrooms
Another group of non-flowering plants are mosses.
These are simple and primitive land plants. Although they
have leaves and stems, they have no true roots and have no
means to transport water and nutrients around their bodies.
Ferns are also examples of a group of non-flowering
plants. They have roots, stems and leaves but no flowers.
Unlike many non-flowering plants, they are able to
transport water and food into and around their bodies.
16
4.

Letfs Try This
Draw some non-flowering plants that can be found in your neighborhood. Write
their names below your drawings.
1. 2.
3. _
Discuss your work with your Instructional Manager and co-learners.
Letfs Remember
These are the characteristics of non-flowering plants:
. They do not have flowers or seeds.
. Most of them live in water or in moist places.
. Most of them do not have systems that transport food and water in and
around their bodies.
. Some have no roots, stems or leaves.
17
guava
Let’s Learn
corn
Flowering Plants
Look around you. Most of the plants that we are familiar with are flowering
plants. Can you identify some of the plants that you see which have flowers? Write
down the names of these flowering plants.

_
_
Flowering plants are plants that have flowers. They are also called ‘seed-bearing’
because they have seeds. Most crop plants (like rice, corn, beans and cereals), trees
and ornamental plants belong in this group. Their flowers are not always obvious and
some of them are not strictly flowering plants, but they all bear seeds. Most live on
dry land.
Some of the oldest living flowering plants are
evergreen trees, such as pine and sequoia trees. They
have well-developed roots, stems and needle-shaped
leaves, and they can grow very tall. Most evergreen trees
have their seeds formed in a cone, called conifers.
Conifers are often used as Christmas decorations. Both
pine and sequoia trees bear conifers.
Most flowering plants do not, however, have their
seeds formed in a cone. Instead they have blooms that
can easily be recognized as flowers and have seeds
wrapped in some kind of case. Examples are guava,
papaya and santol.
The seed of a flowering plant usually contains a tiny new plant. Part of this plant
consists of seed leaves that help digest and absorb food and transfer it to the
developing plant. This can mostly be seen in flowering plants like corn and beans.
bean plant
18
pine tree
Other flowering plants with seed leaves are grass, cereals, palm trees and some
ornamental plants like water lilies and irises.
The flower is a very important part of flowering plants. It plays a major role in
reproduction. Do you remember the different parts of a flower? You may refer to the
module entitled Think Green for a discussion on the parts of a flower.
Parts of a Flower
stigma
anther
filament
receptacle
Let’s Try This
A. You will find a picture of a flower on the next page. Try to label its different
parts without looking at the picture above. Write your answers in the blanks
at the end of the arrows.
A flower forms at the end of a special branch of a plant. The tip of the branch is
called the receptacle. Attached to the receptacle are four parts: sepals, petals,
stamens and carpels or pistils.
The outermost part of the flower is made of the sepals and petals. Both of them
have a leaflike appearance or structure. Sepals are usually green while petals are
usually white or brightly colored. Sepals, being the outermost part of a flower, usually
enclose the flower before it opens.
The stamen and the carpels or pistils are the reproductive parts of a flower. You
will learn more about them in Lesson 3, where we will discuss different means of
plant reproduction.
stamen
19
petal
carpel
ovary
ovules
B. Draw some flowering plants that may be found in your neighborhood. Try to
include the various parts of the flower of each plant in your drawings. Write
the name of each plant below your drawing.
1.
2. _
3. 4. _
For Part A, compare your answers with those found in the Answer Key on page
46.
In Part B, were you able to identify and draw the receptacle, sepals, petals and
other parts of the flower in each of your flowering plants? Show your work to your
Instructional Manager for comments. Sometimes, it is difficult to identify the various
parts of the flowers of some flowering plants. What is important in plant
classification is to distinguish flowering from non-flowering plants.
20
Letfs Remember
These are the characteristics of flowering plants:
. They have flowers, which are very important in reproduction.
. They bear seeds, some in the form of cones, others wrapped in a kind of
case.
. They have roots, stems and leaves.
. They have systems that transport food and water in and around their bodies.
. Most live on dry land.
sampaguita
algae
Non-flowering
Letfs See What You Have Learned
A. Study the following characteristics of plants. Write F in the blank beside the
number of the characteristic that refers to flowering plants. Write NF in the
blank beside the number of the characteristic that refers to non-flowering
plants.

_ 1. They do not have roots and stems.
_ 2. They live in water or in moist places.
_ 3. They bear seeds.
_ 4. They can transport water and nutrients within their bodies.
_ 5. Their flowers are important parts in reproduction.
B. Classify the following plants. Place them in the proper column in the table.
seaweed mushroom coconut mango
pine tree fern corn red moss
Flowering

1. 1.
2. 2.
3. 3.
4. 4.
5. 5.
Compare your answers with those in the Answer Key on pages 46.47.
How did you do? Did you get everything right? If you did, excellent! If not, you
may go back to the lesson and try to understand it better.
21
Let's Remember
. Plants can be grouped according to whether they have flowers and seeds or
not.
. Non-flowering plants are those that neither have flowers nor bear seeds.
. Most of them live in water or in moist places.
. Most of them do not have complete plant parts. Some donft have roots,
stems or leaves.
. Most do not have systems that move or transport food inside their
bodies.
. Flowering plants have flowers and bear seeds.
. Most of them live on dry land.
. They have systems that move or transport food inside their bodies.
. They have roots, stems and leaves.
. Their flowers are very important in reproduction.
22
LESSON 3
Classification Based on Means of
Reproduction
In Lessons 1 and 2, you learned that plants can be classified according to where
they live, their stems, and whether they have flowers and seeds or not.
Plants may also be classified according to the ways in which they reproduce.
Have you wondered how plants are able to reproduce themselves? How can you tell if
a plant is female or male? What do plants use to be able to reproduce?
Knowing how plants reproduce helps farmers, plant growers and gardeners in
tending the plants they grow in their farm, plot or garden. It helps them know which
plants can be left to reproduce on their own and which plants need help in
reproducing.
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:
. identify the different kinds of asexual reproduction among plants;
. identify the processes involved in the sexual reproduction of plants;
. differentiate between asexual and sexual reproduction; and
. classify plants according to the ways in which they reproduce.
Letfs Try This
The following are six pictures showing stages of the growth of a potato. Try and
arrange the pictures in their proper sequence. Write 1 in the box at the lower right
side of the picture that should go first, 2 for the second picture, and so on.
Nodes
How a Potato Grows
23
Compare your answers with those in the Answer Key on page 47.
What did you notice about the way a potato grows and reproduces? In human
reproduction, two parents are needed. Does a potato need another potato to produce
new potatoes? Let’s find out.
Let’s Learn
tubers from a potato
Asexual Reproduction
There are plants, like potatoes, that do not need another of their kind to
reproduce. These plants reproduce asexually. This means that, in reproduction, only
one parent is involved. This is also called vegetative propagation.
There are many kinds of asexual reproduction in plants.
Some plants reproduce through their roots,
stems or leaves. Potatoes reproduce by stems called
tubers. Leafy shoots develop from these tubers,
which eventually grow into new plants.
24
The strawberry plant also uses its stems to reproduce. It sends out horizontal
stems called stolons, which grow along the ground. Eventually, roots grow downward
from the stolon’s tip and into the soil. Shoots develop upward into the air, and a new
plant is formed.
rhizomes from ginger
onion bulbs
roots of a lilac plant
katakataka
stolons from a strawberry plant
Some trees and shrubs reproduce through another
kind of horizontal stem called rhizome. Ginger
reproduces by rhizomes. Its rhizomes grow outwards.
After some time, new plants develop from the rhizomes.
Onion and garlic are examples of plants that
reproduce by bulbs. Bulbs are shortened, compressed,
underground stems. They have a special way of dividing
and forming new bulbs.
Other plants, such as lilac, reproduce by roots. On
the right is a picture of a lilac plant producing new plants.
There are few instances in which new plants grow
from leaves. An example is the katakataka
(Bryophyllum) plant.
25
Letfs Try This
Classify the following plants according to whether they use their stems, roots or
leaves for asexual reproduction. Write S for stem, R for root, or L for leaf.

_ 1. lilac _ 4. ginger
_ 2. garlic _ 5. strawberry
_ 3. katakataka
Compare your answers with those in the Answer Key on page 48.
Letfs Remember
. Some plants reproduce asexually or by vegetative reproduction. They do this
with the use of their stems, roots or leaves, which are their vegetative
organs.
. There are plants that reproduce through their stems called tubers, stolons,
rhizomes or bulbs. Other plants reproduce through their roots. Still others
reproduce through their leaves.
Letfs Learn
Sexual Reproduction
You have learned that vegetative reproduction or asexual reproduction in plants
makes use of plant parts such as the leaves, roots and stems to start new plants. Only a
single parent is needed for asexual reproduction. For example, a potato does not need
another potato to make new potatoes.
In flowering plants, a male reproductive cell from one flower unites with the
female reproductive cell of another flower of the same kind. This is called sexual
reproduction because two parents are needed to produce new plants. In this kind of
reproduction, pollination and fertilization should occur to produce fruits containing
seeds and give rise to new plants. You will learn more about these processes as we
continue with the lesson.
Sexual reproduction is very important in plants, particularly those that have
flowers and bear seeds. This is the primary means by which new plants develop and
grow.
Examples of plants that reproduce sexually are fruit trees, like papaya, mango and
guava and ornamental plants.
26
papaya
In Lesson 2, you reviewed the different parts of a flower. There are two parts of a
flower that play important roles in sexual reproduction in plants. These are the stamen
and the carpel or the pistil.
The stamen is the male reproductive part of
a flower. It is usually made up of a long filament
topped with an anther. Inside the anther are sacs
in which pollen grains are produced.
reproductive structure of a flower. At the base of
the carpel is the ovary. The ovary is divided into
compartments that contain ovules. These are the
structures that develop into seeds. Above the
ovary is a tube-like structure called the style. On
top of the style is the stigma, the place where
pollen first collects.
To refresh your memory, below are the parts of a flower. Study the drawing
carefully.
stigma
anther
filament
stamen
receptacle
sampaguita
The carpel or the pistil is the female
carpel
ovary
ovules
27
Let’s Learn
How do plants reproduce sexually?
Unlike animals, plants cannot move from place to place to find food or shelter or
to reproduce. To solve this, plants have developed certain “moving” parts. One
“moving” part is pollen that produces sperm. The sperm is the male reproductive cell
that is necessary in the sexual reproduction of plants. Pollen moves from the anther to
the stigma in a process called pollination.
How does pollen “move” from the anther to the stigma?
Plants make use of a variety of pollinators or pollinating agents. Animals such as
butterflies, bees and birds pollinate many kinds of plants. When these pollinators eat
pollen or a sugary food called nectar, some of the pollen grains from the anther stick
to their body. When the pollinators move to other flowers, the pollen grains are
accidentally transferred to the stigma of those flowers. Almost all pollinators are very
specific. They pollinate only certain plants. So, it is more likely that pollen grains
from a certain plant will land on the stigma of another plant of the same kind. For
example, a kind of bee pollinates only white roses, while a kind of butterfly pollinates
only sunflowers.
28
Once the pollen grain lands on the stigma of
the same kind of plant, fertilization begins. The
sperm cell produced in the pollen grain travels
through a pollen tube to reach the egg cell in the
ovary.
embryo
The fertilized egg or zygote eventually
develops into an embryo.
The ovule develops into a seed that contains
the embryo and its food supply.
While the seed matures within the ovary, the
walls of the ovary change to form a fruit.
When the fruit ripens, the flower parts fall
away. The seed in the fruit is now ready to be
planted to produce a new plant. New flowers will
develop from the new plant and the process of
reproduction may begin again.
29
Thus, in sexual reproduction, the male and female parts of a flower are very
important. The stamen is the male reproductive part of the flower. It consists of the
anther, the filament and the pollen. The carpel or the pistil is the female reproductive
structure of the flower, where the ovary, the ovules and the style are located.
The pollen is transferred from the anther to the stigma of the same flower or
another flower. The sperm from the pollen unites with the egg cell in the ovule.
Fertilization then occurs and an embryo is developed. The ovule develops into a seed
that contains embryo and food supply. The ovary enlarges into a fruit that contains
seed. The fruit ripens and the flower parts fall away. The seed may then be planted to
produce new plant. Look at the illustration below for a more visual representation of
how plants reproduce sexually.
Let’s Try This
The following eight pictures illustrate the different stages of sexual reproduction
in plants. Arrange them in the proper order. Write 1 in the box of the picture that
should go first, 2 for the second picture, and so on.
30
Compare your answers with those in the Answer Key on page 48.
Letfs Remember
. Most flowering plants produce sexually.
. Sexual reproduction in plants involves two parents to produce new plants.
In this process, a male reproductive cell unites with and fertilizes a female
reproductive cell.
. The flower is the most important part of a plant in sexual reproduction. It
contains the male and female reproductive cells needed for reproduction.
31
Let’s Read
Asexual and Sexual Means of Reproduction in Plants
Plants can be classified according to how they reproduce.
Some plants reproduce asexually or through vegetative propagation. These plants
don’t need another plant to produce new plants. They reproduce using their stems,
roots or leaves, which are called their vegetative organs. New plants develop from
these organs.
Other plants, particularly flowering plants, reproduce sexually. In this process,
two parents are needed to produce new plants. The flower is the most important part
of the plant in this mode of reproduction. Through pollination, the sperm cell of a
flower fertilizes the egg cell of another flower of the same kind. After some time, a
seed develops, which can be planted to produce a new plant.
Knowing how plants reproduce enables people, especially farmers and gardeners,
to know how to reproduce different kinds of plants. Through this knowledge, they are
able to develop methods on how to tend their plants properly and to use tools that will
help in the reproduction of certain plants. For example, farmers know that new
potatoes develop from tubers. They will choose potatoes that have already developed
these special stems and plant these in a way that there will be room for new plants to
grow.
Knowing how plants reproduce makes us aware of how to help in the growth and
development of plants. After all, plants are very important to man.
For example, you have learned that flowering plants need bees, butterflies and
other insects for pollination to occur. You become more aware of how important
these insects are and decide against killing these insects – directly or as a result of
neglecting the environment. Pollution kills most of these insects. If people continue
to pollute the environment, these pollinators will die and fewer plants will be
reproduced. Would you like that to happen?
a. flowering plants
b. katakataka
c. ovule
Lets See What You Have Learned
To see how much you have learned about the different ways plants reproduce,
complete the following lesson review test.
A. Match the statements in Column A with the terms they describe in Column
B. Write the letter of the correct answer in the blanks provided.
A B

1. It is the asexual reproduction in
plants.

2. These are parts used by plants in
producing asexually.
32

3. These are special stems in
4. This is an example of a plant that
potatoes that reproduce plants.
reproduces through its leaves.

5. It is a kind of reproduction that
involves a sperm cell and an egg

6. Plants that usually reproduce
7. It is the part of the flower that
cell.
sexually.
produces pollen.

8. They aid in the pollination of
plants. Examples are butterflies

9. It is the part of the flower that
and bees.
contains the egg cells.

10. It is the result of the union of a
sperm cell and an egg cell.
B. Answer this question:
What are the differences between asexual and sexual reproduction in plants?

_
_
_
_
_
_
Compare your answers with those in the Answer Key on page 49.
How did you do? Did you get everything right? If you did, excellent! If not, you
may go back to the lesson and try to understand it better.
33
d. vegetative propagation
e. tubers
f. sexual reproduction
g. zygote
h. stems, roots or leaves
i. anther
j. pollinators
Classification According to
Stem
Let’s Try This
As an assignment, try and complete the following activity.
Visit your local neighborhood. Find at least five different plants and classify them
according to the categories discussed in this module. Give your reasons for your
classification. Use the chart on the next page to record your data. Refer to the
examples below.
Name of
Plant
1. mango
Habitat
terrestrial
It lives on
land.
Flowering/
Non-flowering
flowering
It has flowers
and bears seeds.
Means of
Reproduction
sexual
It has flowers
and bears
seeds, thus, it
undergoes
pollination
and fertilization.
woody
Its main
stem or
trunk is
hard, rough
and brown.
Discuss your work with your co-learners and Instructional Manager.
34
35
Classification According to
Name of Plant Means of Flowering/
Habitat Stem Reproduction Non-flowering
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Letfs Remember
In this lesson, you have learned that:
. Vegetative propagation is the asexual reproduction in plants.
. Plants that reproduce through vegetative propagation make use of their
leaves, stems or roots to reproduce.
. Only one parent is needed for asexual reproduction.
. In sexual reproduction, it is the flower that plays an important role in
reproduction.
. Sexual reproduction involves the union of a sperm cell and an egg cell.
. The sperm cell is found in the pollen, which is produced in the stamen
. The egg cell is produced in the ovule, which is part of the pistil or
. Pollinators aid in transferring pollen from the anther to the stigma of a
This is called fertilization.
or the male part of the flower.
carpel of the female part of the plant.
flower.
. Classifying plants according to their means of reproduction is very useful to
man.
. It helps farmers, plant growers and gardeners develop methods on how
to reproduce plants successfully.
. It makes people aware of the plantsf need to reproduce. It makes them
more conscious of their role in helping plants reproduce.
36
Letfs Sum Up
In this module, you learned about the ways of classifying plants.
. Plants can be classified based on their habitat.
. Terrestrial plants live on land.
. Aquatic plants live in water.
. Aerial plants live above the ground, usually attached to other plants.
. Plants can also be classified according to the type of stem they have.
. Woody plants have hard, rough, and brown stems. Further, woody plants
are of different kinds: shrub, tree, and vine.
. Non-woody or herbaceous plants have soft, usually smooth, and green
stems.
. Plants are also classified according to whether they have flowers and bear
seeds or not.
. Non-flowering plants are those that do not have flowers and do not bear
seeds. Most of them live in water or in moist places. They do not have
systems that transport nutrients and water throughout their bodies.
. Flowering plants are those that have flowers and bear seeds. Most of
them live on dry land. They have systems that transport food and water
throughout their bodies.
. Plants can also be classified according to their means of reproduction.
. There are plants that reproduce asexually or through vegetative
propagation. They make use of their stems, roots or leaves.
. Other plants, especially flowering plants, reproduce sexually.
Pollination and fertilization occur in sexual reproduction among these
plants, which result in seeds.
37
What Have You Learned?
Choose the correct answer for each item below. Write the letter of the item of
your choice in the blank before the number.

_ 1. Plants are classified based on their .
a. differences with each other
b. similarities with animals
c. similarities with each other
d. differences with animals
_ 2. The place where a plant lives is called its .
a. vegetation
b. reproduction
c. vegetative organ
d. habitat

_ 3. Terrestrial plants are plants that .
a. live in water
b. live on land
c. live in air
d. live in moist places
_ 4. Which of the following plants are aquatic?
a. water lily
b. mango tree
c. green ivy
d. rose bush
_ 5. What do you call plants that live in air?
a. aquatic
b. herbaceous
c. aerial
d. terrestrial
_ 6. Which is a characteristic of the stems of non-woody or herbaceous
plants?
a. green
b. hard
c. rough
d. brown
_ 7. What kind of stem does kangkong have?
a. woody
b. aquatic
c. aerial
d. herbaceous
38
_ 8. What kind of a woody plant is narra?
a. shrub
b. tree
c. herbaceous
d. vine
_ 9. Which of the following is not a characteristic of flowering
plants?
a. They bear seeds.
b. Most live on land.
c. They have roots, stems and leaves.
d. They do not have systems that transport food around their
bodies.
_ 10. Which of the following are examples of non-flowering plants?
a. narra and mango
b. rose and sampaguita
c. mushroom and algae
d. ampalaya and sitaw
_ 11. What do you call asexual reproduction in plants?
a. vegetative propagation
b. pollination
c. fertilization
d. sexual reproduction
_ 12. Which is true about asexual reproduction?
a. Pollinators help transfer pollen from one flower to
another.
b. A plant uses its leaf, stem or root to reproduce.
c. Sperm cells from the pollen fertilize egg cells in the
ovule.
d. The flower is the most important part of the plant in
reproduction
_ 13. Which of the following plants undergo asexual reproduction?
a. mango
b. tomato
c. papaya
d. garlic
_ 14. What do strawberry plants use to reproduce?
a. rhizomes
b. bulbs
c. stolons
d. tubers
39
_ 15. Which of the following plants reproduce through their leaves?
a. onion
b. katakataka
c. camote
d. strawberry
_ 16. Sexual reproduction in plants makes use of their .
a. leaves
b. roots
c. stems
d. flowers

_ 17. Which part of the flower produces sperm?
a. petal
b. pollen
c. ovary
d. ovule

_ 18. What is pollination?
a. It is the asexual reproduction in plants.
b. It is the union of the sperm cell and the egg cell.
c. It is the process through which pollen moves from the
anther to the stigma.
d. It is the use of stems, leaves or roots in producing new
plants.

_ 19. When does fertilization occur?
a. when a sperm cell unites with the egg cell
b. when pollen moves from the anther to the stigma
c. when the horizontal stems of a plant give rise to new
plants
d. when the ovary enlarges into a fruit

___ 20. Which of the following plants does not reproduce sexually?
a. mango
b. papaya
c. gumamela
d. onion
Were you able to get all the correct answers? Compare your answers with those
in the Answer Key on pages 49–51.
40
If the number of correct answers you got is:
18 – 20 Very good! You have learned a lot from this module.
15 – 17 Good! Just go back and review the items that you answered
incorrectly.
12 – 14 Satisfactory. You need to review the important points that you
did not understand.
0 – 11 You have to review the whole module again.
41
Answer Key
A. Let’s See What You Already Know (pages 2–3)
1. (d). The main reasons for classifying plants are: to give order to the
many plant varieties, to easily distinguish groups of plants based on
certain characteristics and to categorize plants into smaller groups so as
to easily identify them. Plant classification does not involve finding
the relationship between plants and animals.
2. (c). Lotus, water lily and kangkong are aquatic plants because they
live in the water. Watermelon, mango and sampaloc (a) and string beans
and cabbage (d) are terrestrial plants because they live on land. Orchids
and green ivy (b) are aerial plants because they live above the ground,
usually attached to other plants.
3. (b). Plants that have soft, greenish stems are called herbaceous or nonwoody.
Herbaceous refers to the type of stem a plant has. Terrestrial,
aquatic and aerial are words used to classify a plant according to its
habitat.
4. (a). Shrubs are plants that grow upright, but stay close to the ground and
do not grow tall. Vines (b) are plants that creep or crawl. Trees (c)
usually grow very tall. Flowers (d) are parts of a plant.
5. (c). Flowering plants are not simple plants that live in water. Most
of them live on land. They also bear seeds, have true roots, stems and
leaves, and the flower is their reproductive structure.
6. (b). Vegetative propagation is the asexual reproduction in plants.
Vegetation (a) refers to the plants growing in a place. Fertilization (c)
means the union of a sperm cell and an egg cell. Pollination (d) means
the transfer of pollen to the stigma of a flower.
7. (a). Sweet potatoes produce new plants by tubers, which are specialized
stems. Other plants use leaves, rhizomes or roots to reproduce.
8. (a). The anther is the male part of a flower where sperm-producing
pollen grains are produced. The sepal (b) is not a reproductive part of a
flower. It only serves as a special kind of leaf that covers the flower
before it opens. The pistil (c) is the female reproductive part of a
flower. The petals (d) surrounds the reproductive parts of a flower.
9. (d). Fertilization is the union of an egg cell and a sperm cell.
Vegetative propagation (a) is the asexual reproduction in plants.
Pollination (b) is the transfer of pollen from the anther to the female
reproductive part of a flower. Vegetation (c) refers to the plants that
grow in a certain area.
42
10. (a). Pollination is the process through which pollen is transferred from
the anther to the stigma of a flower. Vegetative propagation (b) refers to
the asexual reproduction in plants. Fertilization (c) is a part of sexual
reproduction in which a sperm cell from the pollen unites with an egg
cell in the ovule. Asexual reproduction (d) does not involve pollination.
1.
2.
3.
1.
2.
3.
1.
2.
B. Lesson 1
Let’s Study and Analyze (pages 5–7)
Plants that live on
land
Plants that live in
water
Plants that are
attached to other
plants
A. Terrestrial
1. pine tree
2. kamagong
3. molave
4. guava
5. papaya
B. Aquatic
1. red algae
2. green algae
3. seaweed
4. duckweed
5. pondweed
C. Aerial
1. bromeliads
2. lichens
3. passion flower
Let’s Talk About This (pages 7–8)
Here are other examples of terrestrial, aquatic and aerial plants. There
are many others.
poison ivy
43
banana 4. carrot
narra 5. mango
acacia 6. rose
4. lotus
5. seaweed
water lily
orchid 3.
kangkong
water hyacinth
green ivy
6. coconut
7. sambong
8. Ilang-ilang
9. bermuda grass
10. calamansi
6. yellow iris
7. water lettuce
8. waterweed
9. water spinach
10. watergrass
4. begonia
5. lianas
Let’s Study and Analyze (pages 9–10)
Plant Color of Stem
brown rose 1.
brown gumamela 2.
brown santan 3.
green kangkong 4.
green pechay 5.
Let’s Learn (pages 10–11)
Here are other examples of vines, shrubs and trees.
A. Vines
1. upo
2. bougainvillea
3. purple allamanda
4. black pepper
5. jade vine
C. Trees
1. ipil-ipil
2. palm
3. mahogany
Let’s See What You Have Learned (page 12)
A. 1. T. Langka is a terrestrial plant because it lives on land.
2. Aq. Seaweed is an aquatic plant because it lives in water.
3. T. Chico is a terrestrial plant because it lives on land.
4. Ae. An orchid is an aerial plant because it lives in air, clinging onto
other plants.
5. T. Lanzones is a terrestrial plant because it lives on land.
6. Aq. Kangkong is an aquatic plant because it lives in water.
7. Ae. Green ivy is an aerial plant because it lives in air.
8. T. Squash is a terrestrial plant because it lives on land.
9. Aq. Lotus is an aquatic plant because it lives in water.
10. T. Corn is a terrestrial plant because it lives on land.
Hardness of Stem
(hard or soft)
Texture of Stem
(rough or smooth)
hard rough
hard rough
hard rough
soft smooth
soft smooth
B. Shrubs
1. santan
2. camia
3. camellia
4. white campanulas
5. Philippine violet
4. guyabano
5. balete
44
B. The following plants are woody because their stems are hard, rough and
brown in color.
4. molave
5. grapes
1. dama de noche
2. ilang-ilang
3. sampaguita
The following plants are non-woody or herbaceous because their stems are
soft, usually smooth and greenish in color.
3. banana 1. alugbati
2. kinchay 4. saluyot
C. 1. Shrub. The rose plant is a shrub. It has woody stems that grow upright,
but it does not grow very tall. It has thorns to protect it from animals
that may eat or destroy it.
2. Tree. The apple is a tree. It is a woody plant that grows big. It has one
very hard and wide trunk.
3. Vine. Upo is a vine. It is a creeping woody plant. It has twiners and
tendrils that enable it to wrap itself around a solid support.
4. Tree. Durian is a tree. It is a woody plant that grows big. It has a hard,
wide and brownish trunk.
5. Tree. The mango is a tree. It has a very hard, wide and brownish trunk. It
usually grows very tall.
6. Shrub. Santan is a shrub. It grows low or very close to the ground. Its
stems grow upright.
D.
PLANTS
Woody
Shrubs Trees Vines
45
Non-woody or
Herbaceous
Flowering Plants
C. Lesson 2
Let’s Try This (pages 14–15)
seaweed 1.
mushroom 2.
moss 3.
fern 4.
Let’s Try This (pages 19–20)
A. Parts of a Flower
stigma
anther
filament
receptacle
Let’s See What You Have Learned (page 21)
A. 1. NF. Non-flowering plants usually do not have roots and stems.
2. NF. Non-flowering plants are usually found living in water or in
moist places.
3. F. Flowering plants bear seeds.
4. F. Flowering plants have systems that enable them to transport
nutrients and water into and around their bodies.
5. F. For flowering plants, flowers are important parts in their
reproduction.
stamen
46
Non-flowering Plants
pine tree 1.
rose bush 2.
bougainvillea 3.
mango tree 4.
petal
carpel
ovary
ovules
B.
Flowering
coconut 1.
corn 2.
mango 3.
pine tree 4.
sampaguita 5.
D. Lesson 3
Let’s Try This (pages 23–24)
How a Potato Grows
5
6
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
1 2
47
Non-flowering
mushroom
red moss
seaweed
fern
algae
Nodes
4
3
Let’s Try This (page 26)
1. R. Lilac reproduces asexually using its roots.
2. S. Garlic uses special stems, called bulbs, to reproduce.
3. L. The katakataka plant reproduces by its leaves.
4. S. Ginger uses special stems, called rhizomes, to reproduce asexually.
5. S. The strawberry plant reproduces using special stems called stolons.
Let’s Try This (pages 30–31)
3 1
8 6
2 7
5 4
48
Let’s See What You Have Learned (pages 32–33)
A. 1. (d). Vegetative propagation is the asexual reproduction in plants.
2. (h). Plants that reproduce asexually use their stems, roots or leaves.
3. (e). Potatoes use tubers to reproduce.
4. (b). Katakataka is an example of a plant that reproduces by leaves.
5. (f). Sexual reproduction involves a sperm cell and an egg cell. The
union of these cells is called fertilization.
6. (a). Flowering plants usually reproduce sexually. Their flowers play a
major role in reproduction.
7. (i). Pollen is produced in the anther of the plant. Pollen contains the
sperm cells that are important in sexual reproduction.
8. (j). Pollinators like butterflies and bees aid in the pollination of plants.
Pollination is the transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma of a
plant.
9. (c). The ovule contains the egg cells. These egg cells will unite with the
sperm cells from the pollen.
10. (g). A zygote results from the union of a sperm cell and an egg cell in a
process called fertilization.
B. One difference between sexual and asexual reproduction is the plant
part used to produce new plants. Sexual reproduction depends on a
plant’s flowers, while plants that undergo asexual reproduction make
use of stems, leaves or roots, which are called vegetative organs.
Another difference is that only one parent is involved in asexual
reproduction. A plant that reproduces asexually or through vegetative
propagation does not need another plant to produce new plants. While,
in sexual reproduction, two parents are involved. The sperm cell of a
flower must fertilize the egg cell of another flower of the same kind for
fertilization to occur, which will eventually lead to reproduction of new
plants.
E. What Have You Learned? (pages 38–40)
1. (c). Plants are classified based on their similarities with each other,
not on their differences (s). Their similarities (b) or differences (d)
with animals are not considered.
2. (d). The place where a plant lives is called its habitat. Vegetation (a)
refers to the plants that grow in a certain area. Reproduction (b) refers
to the process by which new plants are produced. A vegetative organ (c)
is the part of the plant used in asexual reproduction. It may be the plant’s
stem, root or leaf.
49
3. (b). Terrestrial plants live on land. Plants that live in water (a) and in
moist places (d) are aquatic plants. Plants that live in air (c) are aerial
plants.
4. (a). Water lily is the aquatic plant among the choices. The mango tree
(b) and the rose bush (d) are terrestrial plants, while the green ivy (c) is
an aerial plant.
5. (c). Plants that live in air or on the branches of trees are called aerial
plants. Aquatic (a) plants live in water. Terrestrial (d) plants live on land.
Herbacious (b) refers to the type of stem a plant has and not where a
plant lives.
6. (a). Non-woody or herbaceous plants usually have green stems. The
stems of woody plants are hard, rough and brown.
7. (d). Kangkong is a herbaceous plant because its stems are green, soft
and smooth. Woody plants (a) are plants with stems that are hard, rough
and brownish. The words ‘aquatic’ (b) and ‘aerial’ (c) refer to plant
classification based on habitat and not on stem type.
8. (b). Narra is a tree. It grows very tall and has a hard, wide and brown
trunk. Shrubs (a) are woody plants that grow close to the ground and
have many stems. Vines (d) are woody plants that creep or crawl and
wrap themselves around solid supports. Herbaceous (c) plants are nonwoody
plants.
9. (d). Flowering plants do have systems that transport food around their
bodies. They bear seeds and most of them live on land. They also have
roots, stems and leaves.
10. (c). Mushroom and algae are examples of non-flowering plants. They
have no flowers and do not bear seeds. Most of them live in water or in
moist places. Narra and mango (a), rose and sampaguita (b) and
ampalaya and sitaw (d) are all flowering plants. They have flowers and
bear seeds.
11. (a). Vegetative propagation is the asexual reproduction in plants.
Here, plants use their stems, roots or leaves to reproduce. Pollination
(b) refers to the transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma of a
flower. Fertilization (c) is the union of a sperm cell and an egg cell.
Sexual reproduction (a) involves the fertilization of an egg cell in a
flower’s ovule by a sperm cell from a pollen grain. Unlike vegetative
propagation or asexual reproduction, it is the flowers that are important
in sexual reproduction.
12. (b). In asexual reproduction or vegetative propagation, a plant uses its
stems, roots or leaves to reproduce. It does not use pollen, sperm
cells, egg cells or its flower to produce new plants.
50
13. (d). Garlic undergoes asexual reproduction. It uses special stems
called bulbs to reproduce new plants. Mango (a), tomato (b) and papaya
(c) reproduce sexually. Their flowers play the most important role in
reproducing new plants.
14. (c). Strawberry plants use special stems called stolons to reproduce.
Ginger uses rhizomes (a). Onion and garlic use bulbs (b). Potatoes use
tubers (d).
15. (b). Among the choices, katakataka is the plant that reproduces by
leaves. Onion (a) reproduces by bulbs. Camote (c) uses tubers.
Strawberry (d) reproduces using stolons.
16. (d). In sexual reproduction, plants make use of their flowers. Plants
that reproduce asexually use their leaves (a), roots (b) or stems (c).
17. (b). Pollen produces sperm cells. They are found in the anther or the
male part of a flower. Petals (a) do not play a role in reproduction. The
ovary (c) and ovule (d) are part of the female reproductive system of a
flower.
18. (c). Pollination is the process through which pollen moves from the
anther to the stigma of a flower. Asexual reproduction (a) in plants is
called vegetative propagation, where stems, leaves or roots are used to
produce new plants (d). Fertilization is the union of a sperm cell and an
egg cell (b).
19. (a). Fertilization occurs when a sperm cell from the pollen unites
with the egg cell in the ovule. Pollination occurs when pollen moves
from the anther to the stigma (b). Vegetative propagation may involve
horizontal stems giving rise to new plants (c). Although the ovary of a
flower enlarges into a fruit in sexual reproduction, this process occurs
after fertilization (d).
20. (d). Among the four plants in the choices, the onion is the plant that
does not reproduce sexually. It reproduces by bulbs in a process called
vegetative propagation
51
Glossary
Aerial Growing or living in the air or above the ground
Anther The male part of the flower that produces pollen
Aquatic Growing or living in water
Asexual reproduction Reproduction that involves only one parent
Embryo The early stage of development of a plant (or an individual)
Fertilization The union of an egg cell and a sperm cell
Herbaceous Non-woody; having the characteristics of an herb
Ovary Female reproductive organ
Ovule A structure in the ovary of a flower that becomes a seed after fertilization
Pollen The sperm-producing, “moving” part of a plant
Pollination The transfer of pollen to the stigma of a flower
Pollinator That which aids the pollination process by transferring pollen from
one flower to another
Stigma The female reproductive part of a flower
Terrestrial Growing or living on land
Vegetative organs The parts a plant uses to reproduce asexually. These may be
stems, roots or leaves.
Vegetative propagation Asexual reproduction in plants, using vegetative organs
(such as stems, leaves and roots)
Zygote Fertilized egg
References
Fernandez, Dolores, et al. Biology for Philippines Highschools: Relationships
of Living Things. Mandaluyong, Metro Manila, Philippines: Cacho
Hermanos, Inc., 1983, pp. 100 – 110.
McLaren, James, et al. Biology. US: D.C. Heath and Company, 1991, pp. 336 –
438.
Brooklyn Botanic Garden. Grouping Plants by Form and Function.
<http://www.bbg.org/gardening/botany/parts/grouping.html>. April 5, 2001,
date accessed.
Natural Vegetative Propagation. <http://koning.ecsu.ctstateu.edu/vegprop/
vegprop.html>. April 2, 2001, date accessed.
Vegetative Reproduction. <http://learn.co.uk/default.asp?WCI=Unit&WCU=
2860>. April 3, 2001, date accessed.

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aquatic_plant


http://www.cco.caltech.edu/~brokawc/Bi11/terrestOrgs.html



http://theseedsite.co.uk/class.html




http://waynesword.palomar.edu/trmar98.htm




http://www.zephyrus.co.uk/nonfloweringplants.html


http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/A/AsexualReproduction.html



http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookflowers.html




http://www.usask.ca/education/coursework/mcvittiej/resources/redlily/middleyears/pdf/sexualreprod.pdf